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Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems VR 5G and Network Latency


Artificial Intelligence is none other but the simulation of human intelligence.

Enrique JalleThis article was published by Enrique Jalle, Zener Director General of Development and Member of the Advisory Board at Cremades & Calvo-Sotelo.

In the late 1970s, the introduction of mini-computers meant a major breakthrough for distributed computing. It became possible to install the “minis” on site, at the customer’s site, without the need for large installations, both in terms of space and technical complexity (air conditioning, false floors, power, etc.). This led to the emergence of Expert Systems, the first applications of Artificial Intelligence, which started to become of great help for professionals.

Artificial Intelligence is none other but the simulation of human intelligence. When the system focusses on dominating a very specific knowledge area, it is called “expert system”, by analogy to the name given to people with a lot of experience and knowledge in a specific area.

They must be quick when processing, interactive and reliable, since they have to take decisions and solve complex problems. We shouldn’t forget that inasmuch as they imitate the human being, and as it is done with humans, the ultimate expression of their intelligence is measured by their ability when taking decisions.

An Expert System is basically made-up of five parts:

  • Knowledge Data Base. This is where all data, facts and rules acquired through the experience of different experts are stored, related with the topic, as a base of the experience.
  • Interference engine. This is the true brain of the expert system. The function of this engine is to extract the relevant knowledge from the database contents, which are analysed and combined to solve the problem posed by the user.
  • Learning and knowledge acquisition module. This is the part that allows the system to acquire new knowledge, gathering new experiences, using the event feedback.
  • User interface. It is essential that the system is easy to be used by professionals, as they interact with the system in order to solve the problems posed.
  • Explanation module. In this module, the system explains the user how it reached the conclusion provided.

Many expert systems have been developed along the years and they are used in:

  • Information Management.
  • Hospitals and medical facilities.
  • Shape and image recognition for security issues.
  • User interface selection according to profile.
  • Emergency service management (112).
  • Employee performance assessment.
  • Bank loan simulation and analysis.
  • Detection of computer viruses.
  • Warehouse optimization.
  • Repair and maintenance projects.
  • Task planning and programming.
  • Design and development of manufactured objects.
  • Financial decision making
  • Monitoring and control of industrial processes.
  • Airline schedules and routes.

Due to the evolution of microelectronics, these systems do no longer need to be installed in mini-computers, but in micro-processors and therefore have become part of many of the elements that technology provides us, such as mobile telephones, GPS devices, cars, and almost everything we use.

With the arrival of 5G and its almost non-existent latency, the used expert systems will be allowed to interact between them in a quick and efficient way providing the IoT (Internet of Things), with an unimaginable number of practical applications.

Cristiano Ammon (Qualcom CEO) said recently:

 “Everything will be connected. Thousands of millions of objects, things and people, that will also be connected between them at speeds of up to 20 Gbps, and with latencies of less than five milliseconds, will provide for a new service generation. Artificial intelligence, algorithms, machine learning (including self-learning), neuronal networks, natural language processing,... will be key to process all of these vast amounts of data in order to be able to generate a new world of services”.

As usual, there is a leap in history; the new world that will come up will show us its two faces, depending on the ethic sense by which it is governed, since it will also provide for a few risks, such as the creation of “addictions”. From this perspective, the WHO (World Health Organisation) has stated that in 2024, the growth of E-Commerce and consequently of online shopping will be categorised as a new “addictive disorder” that will affect millions of people, including the youngest, who will abuse of the facilities provided by digital commerce, which do not exclude online gaming, leading to true personal bankruptcy.

The increase and dissemination of hoaxes and fake news will generate a lot of traffic. Fortunately, we will be able to counteract with AI (Artificial Intelligence) Expert Systems that can counter, check and delete these fake news using the block chain.

The G7 has planned to create in 2023, a Self-Regulating Association for the Supervision of professionals working as designers and developers of AI (Artificial Intelligence) Systems and Applications and Automatic Learning. The plan will be launched in four G7 countries. Reason for concern are, however, the failures of the AI algorithms in autonomous vehicles and autonomous air planes that, as we all remember, had great significance. The society will have to increase the expenses in skills and ethic training of these professionals and demand from them not only technical abilities, but also additional certifications to ensure their complete trustworthiness. This will involve increased selection and, consequently, a higher shortage, which will lead to higher salaries and costs for the companies.

Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) may have very positive applications for the society, for example, for the inclusion of employees with certain degrees of disability or, better said, with limited abilities (e.g., surveillance of the work of robotic waiters in restaurants).

We are currently starting to talk about EAI (Emotional Artificial Intelligence) and this is a topic that is even more exciting. It is about detecting the emotions of individuals using the artificial vision of computers, and thanks to the capacity of 5G, it will be possible to prevent problems or suggest, for example, possible purchase options, very adapted to their taste and their behaviour patterns, which are already registered in the system. (This is called Empathy-based Marketing).

El doctor Gergory Dudek que dirige el Centro de Inteligencia Artificial de Montreal, afirma que el objetivo actual de su Centro es poner en práctica la fortaleza de la I.A. (Inteligencia Artificial), para aprovechar todo el potencial de la nueva tecnología 5G. Textualmente dice: “Para explotar todo el potencial de las redes 5G, y hacerlas útiles a una amplia gama de usuarios, dispositivos y servicios, se requiere una reconfiguración automatizada amplia y ahí es donde la IA.. entra en escena.

Doctor Gregory Dudek, leader of the Montreal Artificial Intelligence Centre, explains, that the current aim of the centre is to put the strength of IA in practice, in order to make use of the whole potential offered by 5G. He says literally: “In order to exploit the whole potential of 5G networks and make them useful for a large number of users, devices and services, we need a large automated reconfiguration, and this is where AI comes into play.

AI can clearly be used to optimise 5G networks. At the same time, the improved performance features of 5G networks will be very important for the application of AI systems in our daily lives. For example:

  • Autonomous vehicles and delivery vehicles will benefit from these advances, especially due to the dramatic reduction of the latency times.
  • Peripheral computing will be favoured, avoiding the collapse that could be generated if the whole traffic is led to the “cloud”, since the cloud will be growing exponentially due to the IoT. (The peripheral process will avoid the bottleneck caused by the data exchange between devices and people and the cloud).
  • Many of the most interesting applications of robotics combine “Peripheral Computing”, “Big Data” in the cloud, and interactions between several users and devices.
  • The combination of large bandwidth and low latency will be essential for solutions in the field of robotic telemedicine.

We can conclude that it is a fact that the devices we use in our daily life have become crucial to perform our daily tasks and routines.

The simultaneous occurrence of 5G and the huge advances in the field of AI will make these devices even more useful for our daily lives, contributing to making our life even more fun, healthy and safe.

They will help us, amongst others, to overcome linguistic and geographic barriers.

Let us hope that this new distributed, integrated and interconnected intelligence will play an important and positive role in our lives in the not too distant future.

I believe that this synergy (understood as active cooperation) between Artificial Intelligence and 5G, will clearly have a positive influence on our lives, allowing us to focus more on the aspects with which we provide society with a higher value and also on those that are more rewarding.

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